Demand

On the Demand tab of the ETM a user can determine the future demand of energy for the sectors available in the area that the user is modeling at that moment. Usually these sectors are:

  • Households
  • Buildings
  • Transportation
  • Industry
  • Agriculture
  • Other

Not all sectors are available for all areas, depending on the economic reality of that area.

Useful demand and final demand

Some values in the demand section are shown as useful demand. This is the demand of energy that is used to create useful output. This means, for example, that the demand of heat in households is shown, instead of the demand for the separate energy carriers used to create the heat. The reason for this is that many sliders actually affect useful demand. For example: Insulating houses affects useful heat demand. What technologies you then use to heat houses, determines final demand. Final demand is the amount of each energy carrier like electricity and gas, for example, that enters your house.

Final energy demand data are often published by national statistics agencies. Useful energy demand is harder to measure as it is not 'metered'.

Households

In the Households sector the demand for energy in households is specified. The demand growth of energy and the technology mix that uses this energy can be specified. The focus is on technologies used for heating, insulation, cooking, cooling, lighting and appliances. Additionally, users can adjust the behavior of inhabitants and apply decentralised production of electricity.

Buildings

The Buildings sector is a sector not usually seen as a separate economic sector, it contains all the non-residential buildings (all buildings excluding households), including office buildings, schools and hospitals. Often the tertiary sector or services sector, if available, is used as the basis for the underlying data for this sector.

Like in Households, the focus of this sector lies on the way buildings are heated, cooled, ventilated, insulated and lighted. Also here the user can install decentralised electricity production.

Transportation

The Transportation sector is equal to a similarly named economic sector used by statistics agencies. Here the user can specify the future fuel and technology mix in road and rail transport, apply growth to the different modalities in the model (cars, trucks, trains, inland navigation and domestic flights) and apply efficiency improvements to the different modalities in the model.

Industry

The Industry sector contains the economic sector 'industry' and also includes the energy sector (mining and refining). The industry sector is divided into three sub-sectors:

  • the chemical industry
  • the metal industry
  • the other industry

The level of detail of this sector depends on the sub-sector. Only a distinction is made between electricity and heat. There is no distinction between different temperatures of heat required.

Agriculture

The Agriculture sector is equal to a similarly named economic sector often available in national energy statistics.

Other

The Other sector contains all energy use not represented in the previous sectors. It differs slightly per region and is usually small. The following items are usually included under the other sector:

  • the construction sector
  • the army
  • the hydrological sector (dams, levies, etc)

In some countries (like the Netherlands), the Other sector in the national energy statistics contains agriculture and the tertiary sector. If these sectors cannot be split from the Other sector it can be a big sector. Generally speaking this is not a preferable situation, because the options for changing demand are limited in the other sector.