Within the 'Supply' section you can try and cover the total energy demand which is set in the Demand section. The Supply section in the ETM covers the centralized production of both electricity and heat, as well as transport fuel. Decentralized production (e.g. of solar electricity) is covered in the Demand section. The following areas are covered:
- Renewable electricity
- District heating
- Transport fuels
- Fuel production
This page shortly explains the different categories present within the supply section.
You can influence the production of electricity by adjusting the amount of coal plants, gas plants, oil plants or nuclear plants.
In the renewable electricity section you can adjust the amount of (centralized) solar power, wind power, hydro power, biomass plants, waste power, hydrogen plants or geothermal energy available in your scenario area. The maximum amount of available renewable sources for the creation of renewable electricity is not fixed in the ETM. This means you have to decide what is realistic for your specific scenario area.
District heating can be used as heating technology in households, buildings and agriculture. There are roughly two types of heat sources: dispatchable and must-run heat sources. Dispatchable heat sources can be switched on/ off depending on the heat demand at that time, while must-run heat sources supply the heat network regardless of heat demand. For the second type in particular (seasonal) storage of heat is an interesting option.
Checkout: the 'Heat Networks' infopage for more information.
In the hydrogen section you can specify how hydrogen is produced in the future. The ETM offers the following options: electrolysis of wind and solar power from wind/solar farms dedicated to hydrogen production; steam methane reforming (with and without carbon capture); gasification of biomass (with and without carbon capture); import from abroad. Furthermore, it is possible to convert excess electricity into hydrogen using 'power-to-gas' (see the power-to-gas slide). You can do this if your scenario has moments where electricity production exceeds demand. Hydrogen for the fertilizer industry can also be produced on-site since this industry currently has large hydrogen production plants (see fertilizer industry).
In the Transport fuels section you can adjust the type of fuel used by road transport, rail transport, domestic navigation, international aviation and international navigation. By adjusting the fuel mixes you can influence the amount of CO2 emissions in the future as well as the amount of land necessary for the production of biofuels.
In the biomass section you can choose how much biomass should be used as green gass in the gas network or production, or as bio-coal or -oil in energy plants. Furthermore, you can specify the total amount of biomass available in your scenario region by adjusting the sliders in the ‘potential of biomass’ section. Since biomass emissions are officially not considered in the EU you have the possibility to change this in the ‘CO2 emissions of biomass’ section.
Fuel production is supported by the extraction of energy carriers such as coal or natural gas (‘primary carriers’). These are converted to useful carriers such as electricity or heat. In the fuel production section it is possible to adjust the production of such energy carriers.